Quantitative Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 antibodies correlate with plasma HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated DNA levels in children on antiretroviral therapy
Citation: McManus M, Henderson J, Gautam A, Brody R, Weiss ER, Persaud D, Mick E, Luzuriaga K; PACTG 356 Investigators. Quantitative Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 antibodies correlate with plasma HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated DNA levels in children on antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 2;68(10):1725-1732. PMID: 30668843; PMCID: PMC6495016
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This study measured serial plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific antibody (Ab) levels in children who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to 2 years of age, and evaluated their relationship to peripheral blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA levels.
We studied 46 HIV-1-infected children, stratified by age at ART initiation (<3 mo, early therapy [ET]; >3 mo-2 years, late therapy [LT]) and by virologic response (R) or non-response (NR), before and up to 4 years following ART. We studied 20 HIV-1-uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected mothers (seroreverters [SR]) as controls. Plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) Ab levels directed against HIV-1 envelope (gp160, gp41), gag (capsid, p24; matrix, p17), reverse transcriptase (p66/51), and integrase (p31) were serially measured using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HIV-1 Ab rates of decline were estimated over the first 15 months of the study.
The HIV-1 Ab rates of decline in the ET-R group were similar to those in the SR group for all Ab specificities, except for p17 (P = .01). Ab decline rates in the LT-R group and the NR group were significantly slower than in the SR group for all tested Ab specificities. After 1 year of age, Ab levels to p31 and p17 were significantly associated with HIV-1 RNA levels (P < .001); Ab levels to gp160 (P < .001) and gp41 (P < .001) were significantly associated with cell-associated HIV-1 DNA levels.
Quantitative HIV-1-specific Ab levels may be useful for screening children on ART for viral suppression or for residual, cell-associated HIV-1 DNA levels.