Vitamin D, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (OPG/RANKL) and inflammation with alendronate treatment in HIV-infected patients with reduced bone mineral density
Natsag J, Kendall MA, Sellmeyer D, McComsey GA, Brown TT.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of alendronate (ALN) on inflammatory markers and osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and to explore the associations of baseline systemic inflammation and vitamin D status on the bone mineral density (BMD) response to ALN.
Eighty-two HIV-positive patients with lumbar spine T-score ≤ -1.5 were randomized to ALN 70 mg weekly or placebo for 48 weeks; all received calcium carbonate 500 mg/vitamin D3 200 IU twice daily. Serum C-telopeptide (CTx) and BMD were assessed at baseline and week 48. Stored plasma samples in 70 subjects were assayed for levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), OPG, RANKL, interleukin (IL)-6 and soluble receptors for tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α 1 and 2 (sTNFR 1 and 2).
ALN increased BMD more than placebo at both the lumbar spine (difference ALN - placebo 2.64%; P = 0.011) and the total hip (difference 2.27%; P = 0.016). No within- or between-arm differences in OPG, RANKL or inflammatory markers were observed over 48 weeks. High baseline CTx and sTNFR2 were associated with a more robust BMD response to ALN over 48 weeks at the lumbar spine [difference 5.66%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.50, 7.82; P < 0.0001] and total hip (difference 4.99%; 95% CI 2.40, 7.57; P = 0.0002), respectively. Baseline 25(OH)D < 32 ng/mL was associated with larger increases in total hip BMD over 48 weeks, independent of ALN treatment (P = 0.014).
Among HIV-positive patients, higher baseline bone resorption and TNF-α activity were associated with an increased BMD response to ALN. The greater BMD response in those with lower vitamin D reinforces the importance of vitamin D supplementation with bisphosphonate treatment.
HIV Med. 2016 Mar;17(3):196-205. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12291. Epub 2015 Jul 16.