Impact of maternal hepatitis B virus coinfection on mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Citation: Mave V, Suryavanshi N, Kulkarni V, Balasubramanian U, Jadhav A, Bhattacharya D, Patil S, Khandekar M, Paranjape R, Tripathy S, Kinikar A, Bharadwaj R, Bhosale RA, Sambarey P,  Jamkar A, Sastry J, Bollinger RC, Gupta A for the SWEN India Study team. Impact of maternal hepatitis B virus coinfection on mother-to-child transmission of HIV. HIV Med. 2014 Jul;15(6):347-54. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12120. Epub 2014 Jan 14. PMID: 24422893. PMCID: PMC4055515.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24422893

OBJECTIVES:

Despite high hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in various resource-limited settings (RLSs), the impact of maternal HIV/HBV coinfection on infant health outcomes has not been defined. We aimed to assess the prevalence of HBV coinfection among HIV-infected pregnant women and its impact on HIV transmission and infant mortality.

METHODS:

In this study, the seroprevalence of HBV coinfection was determined among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) India trial. The impact of maternal HIV/HBV coinfection on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and infant mortality was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS:

Among 689 HIV-infected pregnant Indian women, 32 (4.6%) had HBV coinfection [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4%, 5.3%]. HBV DNA was detectable in 18 (64%) of 28 HIV/HBV-coinfected women; the median HBV viral load was 155 copies/mL [interquartile range (IQR) < 51-6741 copies/mL]. Maternal HIV/HBV coinfection did not increase HIV transmission risk [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.30, 3.66; P = 0.93]. Increased odds of all-cause infant mortality was noted (aOR 3.12; 95% CI 0.67, 14.57; P = 0.15), but was not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of active maternal HBV coinfection in HIV-infected pregnant women in India was 4.6%. HIV/HBV coinfection was not independently associated with HIV transmission.

HIV Med  2014; doi: 10.1111/hiv.12120.PMCID:PMC4055515

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