Changes in Bone Mineral Density after Antiretroviral Initiation with Tenofovir Disoproxil Changes in Bone Mineral Density after Antiretroviral Initiation with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-Emtricitabine plus Atazanavir-Ritonavir, Darunavir-Ritonavir, or Raltegravir.
Brown TT, Moser C, Currier JS, Ribaudo HJ, Rothenberg J, Kelesidis T, Yang O, Dubé MP, Murphy RL, Stein JH, McComsey GA.
BACKGROUND: Specific antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications and the severity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease before treatment contribute to bone mineral density (BMD) loss after ART initiation.
METHODS: We compared the percentage change in BMD over 96 weeks in 328 HIV-infected, treatment-naive individuals randomized equally totenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), or raltegravir (RAL). We also determined whether baseline levels of inflammation markers and immune activation were independently associated with BMD loss.
RESULTS: At week 96, the mean percentage changes from baseline in spine and hip BMDs were similar in the protease inhibitor (PI) arms (spine: -4.0% in the ATV/r group vs -3.6% in the DRV/r [P = .42]; hip: -3.9% in the ATV/r group vs -3.4% in the DRV/r group [P = .36]) but were greater in the combined PI arms than in the RAL arm (spine: -3.8% vs -1.8% [P < .001]; hip: -3.7% vs -2.4% [P = .005]). In multivariable analyses, higher baseline concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and soluble CD14 were associated with greater total hip BMD loss, whereas markers of CD4(+) T-cell senescence and exhaustion (CD4(+)CD28(-)CD57(+)PD1(+)) and CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD4(+)CD38(+)HLA-DR(+)) were associated with lumbar spine BMD loss.
CONCLUSIONS: BMD losses 96 weeks after ART initiation were similar in magnitude among patients receiving PIs, ATV/r, or DRV/r but lowest among those receiving RAL. Inflammation and immune activation/senescence before ART initiation independently predicted subsequent BMD loss.
J Infect Dis. 2015;212(8):1241-9. PMID: 25948863.